Writing process: Concept 1: Prewriting: Grade 9 to Grade 12

Research has established the major steps of the writing process. These steps are identified in the five concepts of this strand, each supported with specific performance objectives.  While all steps are needed and used by effective writers as they compose text, different skills may be emphasized in individual assignments. These steps may be used recursively as a piece moves toward completion. Throughout the process, students should reflect on their own writing skills, set goals, and evaluate their own progress.

Concept 1: Prewriting

Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

Grade 6

Grade 7

Grade 8
PO 1.  Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., prior knowledge, discussion with others, printed material, or other sources).

PO 1.  Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., prior knowledge, discussion with others, printed material, or other sources).

PO 1.  Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., prior knowledge, discussion with others, printed material, or other sources).

PO 2.  Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade, to explain) of an intended writing piece.

PO 2.  Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade, to explain) of an intended writing piece. PO 2.  Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade, to explain) of an intended writing piece.
PO 3.  Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

PO 3.  Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

PO 3.  Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

PO 4.  Establish a central idea appropriate to the type of writing. PO 4.  Establish a central idea appropriate to the type of writing.

PO 4.  Establish a central idea appropriate to the type of writing.

PO 5.  Use organizational strategies (e.g., outline, chart, table, graph, Venn Diagram, web, story map, plot pyramid) to plan writing.

PO 5.  Use organizational strategies (e.g., outline, chart, table, graph, Venn Diagram, web, story map, plot pyramid) to plan writing. PO 5.  Use organizational strategies (e.g., outline, chart, table, graph, Venn Diagram, web, story map, plot pyramid) to plan writing.
PO 6.  Maintain a record (e.g., list, journal, folder, notebook) of writing ideas.

PO 6.  Maintain a record (e.g., list, journal, folder, notebook) of writing ideas.

PO 6.  Maintain a record (e.g., list, journal, folder, notebook) of writing ideas.

PO 7.  Use time-management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.

PO 7.  Use time-management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period. PO 7.  Use time-management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.
High School
PO 1.  Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., brainstorming, notes and logs, graphic organizers, record of writing ideas and discussion, printed material or other sources).

PO 2.  Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade, to explain) of an intended writing piece.

PO 3.  Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.

PO 4.  Establish a controlling idea appropriate to the type of writing.

PO 5.  Use organizational strategies (e.g., outline, chart, table, graph, Venn Diagram, web, story map, plot pyramid) to plan writing.

PO 6.  Maintain a record (e.g., list, journal, folder, notebook) of writing ideas.

PO 7.  Use time-management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.

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