Strand 1: Writing Process
Research has established the major steps of the writing process. These steps are identified in the five concepts of this strand, each supported with specific performance objectives. While all steps are needed and used by effective writers as they compose text, different skills may be emphasized in individual assignments. These steps may be used recursively as a piece moves toward completion. Throughout the process, students should reflect on their own writing skills, set goals, and evaluate their own progress.
|Concept 1: Prewriting
Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.
|PO 1. Generate ideas through prewriting activities (e.g., brainstorming, webbing, drawing, writer’s notebook, group discussion).
|PO 2. Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate) of a writing piece.|
|PO 3. Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.|
|PO 4. Maintain a record (e.g., lists, pictures, journals, folders, notebooks) of writing ideas.|
|Concept 2: Drafting
Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.
|PO 1. Write a draft with supporting details.|
|PO 2. Organize details into a logical sequence.|
|Concept 3: Revising
Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)
|PO 1. Reread original draft for clarity.|
|PO 2. Add additional relevant details for audience understanding.|
|PO 3. Evaluate the draft for use of one or more writing elements, with the assistance of teacher, peer, checklist, or rubric.
(See Strand 2)
|Concept 4: Editing
Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.
|PO 1. Review the draft for errors in conventions. (See Strand 2)
|PO 2. Use simple resources (e.g., word walls, primary dictionaries) to correct conventions.|
|Concept 5: Publishing
Publishing includes formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.
|PO 1. Rewrite and illustrate selected pieces of writing for sharing with intended audience.|
|PO 2. Write legibly.|
Strand 2: Writing Components
Strand 2 focuses on the elements of effective writing. Good writing instruction incorporates multiple performance objectives into an integrated experience of learning for the student. The order of the concepts and performance objectives is not intended to indicate a progression or hierarchy for writing instruction. Instructional activities may focus on just one concept or many.
|Concept 1: Ideas and Content
Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.
|PO 1. Write stand-alone text that expresses a clear message.|
|PO 2. Incorporate relevant details that give the text interest.|
|Concept 2: Organization
Organization addresses the structure of the writing and integrates the central meaning and patterns that hold the piece together.
|PO 1. Organize content in a selected format (e.g., friendly letter, narrative, expository text).
(See Strand 3)
|PO 2. Use beginning and concluding statements (other than simply “The End”) in text.|
|PO 3. Use signal words (e.g., first, second, third; 1, 2, 3) to indicate the order of events or ideas.|
|PO 4. Use transitional words and phrases (e.g., next, then, so, but, while, after that, because) to connect ideas.|
|PO 5. Write multiple sentences that support a topic.|
|Concept 3: Voice
Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.
|PO 1. Show awareness of the audience through word choice and style.
|PO 2. Write text that is expressive, individualistic, engaging, and lively.|
|Concept 4: Word Choice
Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.
|PO 1. Select words that convey the intended meaning and create a picture in the reader’s mind.|
|PO 2. Use a variety of words, even if not spelled correctly, to convey the intended message.|
|PO 3. Use expressive or descriptive phrases and short sentences, beyond one- or two-word labels.|
|Concept 5: Sentence Fluency
Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.
|PO 1. Write simple sentences.
|PO 2. Write sentences that flow together and sound natural when read aloud.
|PO 3. Use a variety of sentence beginnings and lengths.
|Concept 6: Conventions
Conventions addresses the mechanics of writing, including capitalization, punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage, and paragraph breaks.
|PO 1. Use capital letters for:
|PO 2. Punctuate endings of sentences using:
|PO 3. Use commas to punctuate:
|PO 4. Use a colon to punctuate time.|
|PO 5. Use apostrophes to correctly punctuate contractions.|
|PO 6. Spell high frequency words correctly.|
|PO 7. Use common spelling patterns, including:
|PO 8. Use phonetic spelling and syllabication to create readable text.|
|PO 9. Use resources (e.g., environmental print, word walls, dictionaries) to spell correctly.|
|PO 10. Use the following parts of speech correctly in simple sentences:
|PO 11. Use subject/verb agreement in simple sentences.|
|PO 12. Write own name on personal work.|
Strand 3: Writing Applications
Writing skills particular to the modes listed here may be taught across the curriculum, although some modes may lend themselves more readily to specific content areas. It is imperative that students write in all content areas in order to increase their communication skills, and ultimately to improve their understanding of content area concepts. When appropriate, other content standards are referenced to show interdisciplinary connections.
|Concept 1: Expressive
Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.
|PO 1. Write a narrative that includes:
a. a main idea based on real or imagined events
c. a sequence of events
|PO 2. Write simple poetry, rhymes, or chants.|
|Concept 2: Expository
Expository writing includes nonfiction writing that describes, explains, informs, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.
|PO 1. Write expository texts (e.g., labels, lists, observations, journals).|
|PO 2. Participate in creating simple summaries from informational texts, graphs, tables, or maps.
(See M02-S2C1; R02-S3C1-04, R02-S3C1-05)
|Concept 3: Functional
Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.
|PO 1. Write a variety of functional text (e.g., classroom rules, letters, experiments, recipes, notes/messages, labels, directions, posters, graphs/tables).
(See R02-S3C2; M02-S2C1)
|PO 2. Write communications, including:
a. friendly letters
b. thank-you notes
|Concept 4: Persuasive
Persuasive writing is used for the purpose of influencing the reader. The author presents an issue and expresses an opinion in order to convince an audience to agree with the opinion or to take a particular action.
|Concept 5: Literary Response
Literary response is the writer’s reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer’s interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.
|PO 1. Write a response to a literature selection identifies the:
c. sequence of events
d. main idea
|PO 2. Write a response to a literature selection that connects:
a. text to self (personal connection)
b. text to world (social connection)
c. text to text (compare within multiple texts)
|Concept 6: Research
Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a finished product.
|PO 1. Locate and use informational sources to write a simple report that includes:
a. a title
b. a main idea
c. supporting details
(See R02-S3C1-03, -04, -05)