Writing Standard: Grade 3

Strand 1: Writing Process

Research has established the major steps of the writing process. These steps are identified in the five concepts of this strand, each supported with specific performance objectives.  While all steps are needed and used by effective writers as they compose text, different skills may be emphasized in individual assignments. These steps may be used recursively as a piece moves toward completion. Throughout the process, students should reflect on their own writing skills, set goals, and evaluate their own progress.

Concept 1: Prewriting

Prewriting includes using strategies to generate, plan, and organize ideas for specific purposes.

PO 1.  Generate ideas through a variety of activities (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, drawing, writer’s notebook, group discussion, printed material).

PO 2.  Determine the purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to communicate, to persuade) of a writing piece.
PO 3.  Determine the intended audience of a writing piece.
PO 4.  Use organizational strategies (e.g., graphic organizer, KWL chart, logs) to plan writing.
PO 5.  Maintain a record (e.g., lists, pictures, journals, folders, notebooks) of writing ideas.
PO 6.  Use time management strategies, when appropriate, to produce a writing product within a set time period.
Concept 2: Drafting

Drafting incorporates prewriting activities to create a first draft containing necessary elements for a specific purpose.

PO 1.  Use a prewriting plan to develop a draft with main idea(s) and supporting details.
PO 2.  Organize writing into a logical sequence that is clear to the audience.
Concept 3: Revising

Revising includes evaluating and refining the rough draft for clarity and effectiveness. (Ask: Does this draft say what you want it to say?)

PO 1.  Evaluate the draft for use of ideas and content, organization, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency.

(See Strand 2)

PO 2.  Add details to the draft to more effectively accomplish the purpose.
PO 3.  Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs to clarify the meaning of the draft.
PO 4.  Use a combination of sentence structures (i.e., simple, compound) to improve sentence fluency in the draft.
PO 5.  Modify word choice appropriate to the application in order to enhance the writing.
PO 6.  Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to refine the draft.
PO 7.  Use resources and reference materials to select more precise vocabulary.
Concept 4: Editing

Editing includes proofreading and correcting the draft for conventions.

PO 1.  Identify punctuation, spelling, and grammar and usage errors in the draft.

(See Strand 2)

PO 2.  Use resources (e.g., dictionary, word lists, spelling/grammar checkers) to correct conventions.
PO 3.  Apply proofreading marks to indicate errors in conventions, although may be inconsistent or experimental.
PO 4.  Apply appropriate tools or strategies (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics) to edit the draft.
Concept 5: Publishing

Publishing includes formatting and presenting a final product for the intended audience.

PO 1.  Prepare writing in a format (e.g., oral presentation, manuscript, multimedia) appropriate to audience and purpose.
PO 2.  Share the writing with the intended audience.
PO 3.  Use margins and spacing to enhance the final product.
PO 4.  Write legibly.
Strand 2: Writing Elements
Strand 2 focuses on the elements of effective writing. Good writing instruction incorporates multiple performance objectives into an integrated experience of learning for the student. The order of the concepts and performance objectives is not intended to indicate a progression or hierarchy for writing instruction.  Instructional activities may focus on just one concept or many.
Concept 1: Ideas and Content

Writing is clear and focused, holding the reader’s attention throughout. Main ideas stand out and are developed by strong support and rich details. Purpose is accomplished.

PO 1.  Express ideas that are clear and directly related to the topic.
PO 2. Provide content and selected details that are well-suited to audience and purpose.
PO 3.  Use relevant details to provide adequate support for the ideas.
Concept 2: Organization

Organization addresses the structure of the writing and threads the central meaning and the patterns that hold the piece together.

PO 1.  Organize content in a selected format. (e.g., friendly letter, narrative, expository text).

(See Strand 3)

PO 2.  Create a beginning that captures the reader’s interest.
PO 3.  Place details appropriately to support the main idea.
PO 4.  Use transitional words and phrases (e.g., next, then, so, but, while, after that, because) to connect ideas.

PO 5.  Create an ending that provides a sense of resolution or closure.
PO 6.  Construct a paragraph that groups sentences around a topic.
Concept 3: Voice

Voice will vary according to the type of writing, but should be appropriately formal or casual, distant or personal, depending on the audience and purpose.

PO 1.  Show awareness of the audience through word choice and style.
PO 2.  Convey a sense of originality, sincerity, liveliness, or humor appropriate to topic and type of writing.
Concept 4: Word Choice

Word choice reflects the writer’s use of specific words and phrases to convey the intended message and employs a variety of words that are functional and appropriate to the audience and purpose.

PO 1.  Use a variety of specific and accurate words that effectively convey the intended message.
PO 2.  Use descriptive words and phrases that energize the writing.
PO 3.  Apply vocabulary and/or terminology appropriate to the type of writing.
PO 4.  Use literal and figurative language in a variety of ways (e.g., imitating, creating new words, rhyming), although may be inconsistent or experimental.

Concept 5: Sentence Fluency

Fluency addresses the rhythm and flow of language. Sentences are strong and varied in structure and length.

PO 1.  Write simple and compound sentences.
PO 2.  Write sentences that flow together and sound natural when read aloud.
PO 3.  Vary sentence beginnings, lengths, and patterns to enhance the flow of the writing.
Concept 6: Conventions

Organization addresses the structure of the writing and threads the central meaning and the patterns that hold the piece together.

PO 1.  Use capital letters for:

  1. proper nouns ( i.e., names, days, months)
  2. titles
  3. names of places
  4. abbreviations
  5. literary titles (i.e., book, story, poem)

PO 2.  Punctuate endings of sentences using:

  1. periods
  2. question marks
  3. exclamation points

PO 3.  Use commas to punctuate:

  1. items in a series
  2. greetings and closings of letters
  3. dates

PO 4.  Use quotation marks to punctuate dialogue, although may be inconsistent or experimental.

PO 5.  Use a colon to punctuate time.

PO 6.  Use apostrophes to punctuate:

  1. contractions
  2. singular possessive

PO 7.  Spell high frequency words correctly.

PO 8.  Use common spelling patterns/generalizations to spell words correctly, including:

a.     word families

b.     regular plurals

c.     r-controlled

d.     diphthong

e.     consonant digraphs

f.      CVC words

g.     CCVC

h.     CVCC

i.      affixes

PO 9.  Spell simple homonyms correctly in context.

PO 10.  Use resources (e.g., dictionaries, word walls) to spell correctly.

PO 11.  Use the following parts of speech correctly in simple sentences:

a. nouns

b. action verbs

c. personal pronouns

d. adjectives

PO 12. Use subject/verb agreement in simple sentences.

Strand 3: Writing Applications

Writing skills particular to the modes listed here may be taught across the curriculum, although some modes may lend themselves more readily to specific content areas. It is imperative that students write in all content areas in order to increase their communication skills, and ultimately to improve their understanding of content area concepts.  When appropriate, other content standards are referenced to show interdisciplinary connections.

Concept 1: Expressive

Expressive writing includes personal narratives, stories, poetry, songs, and dramatic pieces. Writing may be based on real or imagined events.

PO 1.  Write a narrative based on imagined or real events, observations, or memories that includes:

a.     characters

b.     setting

c.     plot

d.     sensory details

e.     clear language

f.      logical sequence of events

PO 2.  Write in a variety of expressive forms (e.g., poetry, skit) that may employ:

a.     figurative language

b.     rhythm

c.     dialogue

d.     characterization

e.     plot

f.      appropriate format

Concept 2: Expository

Expository writing includes non-fiction writing that describes, explains, or summarizes ideas and content. The writing supports a thesis based on research, observation, and/or experience.

PO 1.  Record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, map labels and legends) related to the topic.
PO 2.  Write an expository paragraph that contains:

a.     a topic sentence

b.     supporting details

c.     relevant information

PO 3.  Write in a variety of expository forms (e.g., summary, newspaper article, reflective paper, log, journal).

Concept 3: Functional

Functional writing provides specific directions or information related to real-world tasks. This includes letters, memos, schedules, directories, signs, manuals, forms, recipes, and technical pieces for specific content areas.

PO 1.  Write a variety of functional text (e.g., directions, recipes, procedures, rubrics, labels, graphs/tables).

(See R03-S3C2; M03-S2C1)

PO 2.  Write communications, including:

a.     thank-you notes

b.     friendly letters

c.     formal letters

d.     messages

e.     invitations

PO 3.  Address an envelope for correspondence that includes:

a.     an appropriate return address

b.     an appropriate recipient address

Concept 4: Persuasive

Persuasive writing is used for the purpose of influencing the reader. The author presents an issue and expresses an opinion in order to convince an audience to agree with the opinion or to take a particular action.

PO 1.  Write persuasive text (e.g., advertisements, paragraph) that attempts to influence the reader.

Concept 5: Literary Response

Literary response is the writer’s reaction to a literary selection. The response includes the writer’s interpretation, analysis, opinion, and/or feelings about the piece of literature and selected elements within it.

PO 1.  Write a reflection to a literature selection (e.g., journal entry, book review).
PO 2.  Write a book report or review that may identify the:

a.     main idea

b.     character(s)

c.     setting

d.     sequence of events

e.     problem/solution

PO 3.  Write a response to a literature selection that connects:

a.     text to self (personal connection)

b.     text to world (social connection)

c.     text to text (compare within multiple texts)

Concept 6: Research

Research writing is a process in which the writer identifies a topic or question to be answered. The writer locates and evaluates information about the topic or question, and then organizes, summarizes, and synthesizes the information into a finished product.

PO 1.  Paraphrase information from at least one source (e.g., Internet, reference materials).

PO 2.  Organize notes in a meaningful sequence.

PO 3.  Write an informational report that includes main idea(s) and relevant details.